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Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources

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Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here.

Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited non-print sources. For a complete list of how to cite non-print sources, please refer to the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual.


Interviews fall into three categories: published interviews, personal interviews, and research participant interviews. However, only published interviews require a formal citation in your reference list.

A published interview is found in places like a radio show, newspaper, or magazine. To cite a published interview, adhere to the format for that particular reference type (i.e., if the interview is on a podcast, cite the podcast). For more information on citing sources where an interview might appear, visit the Articles in Periodicals page or the Electronic Sources page.

A personal interview is considered personal communication and does not require a formal citation in your reference list. See below for more information.

A research participant interview is an interview conducted as part of your research project. You might address this in the body of your paper, saying something like, “As part of my study, I interviewed fifty participants about their involvement with intramural sports.” However, you do not need to formally cite this in your reference list.

Presentation at Conference or Symposium

Whether you’re citing a keynote address, a paper presentation as part of a symposium, or a poster presentation, follow the guidelines below. While some presentations are published after they’re given, others do not have a written component. If the presentation is published, follow the guidelines for citation as laid out in the Other Print Sources page. Be sure to include a URL if the publication is available online.

Presentation Without an Online Source

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. (Year, Month Day). Title of contribution [Description of contribution]. Title of Symposium/Conference, Location.

Matson, E. (2018, Nov. 5). Drones and autonomous vehicles: The latest new technology to come with potential threat [Conference session]. Dawn or Doom 2018 Conference, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States.

Presentation With Online Source

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. (Year, Month Day). Title of contribution [Description of contribution]. Title of Symposium/Conference, Location. URL

Bailey, C. (2019, April 5). How to get your brain to focus [Address]. TEDxManchester, Manchester, U.K.

Individual Presentation in a Larger Symposium/Panel

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. (Year, Month Day). Title of contribution. In E. E. Chairperson & F. F. Chairperson (Chairs), Title of larger symposium/panel [Description of symposium/panel] Title of symposium/conference, Location. URL if available

Fabian, J. J. (2020, May 14). UX in free educational content. In J. S. Doe (Chair), The case of the Purdue OWL: Accessibility and online content development [Panel presentation] Computers and Writing 2020, Greenville, NC, United States.

Unpublished Works

You may find yourself needing to cite a dissertation or a manuscript that has not yet been formally published. To correctly classify the work, describe the work and put that description in square brackets. Be sure the date you list is the year the work was completed, whether it’s the final version or not. 

Unpublished Manuscript

Barkley, S., Chen, M., & McDonald, P. (2018). The effects of sodium on children’s health [Unpublished manuscript]. Department of Biology, University of Cincinnati.

Manuscript in Preparation

Glass, A. (2019). How avocados changed America [Manuscript in preparation]. Department of Sociology, Michigan State University.

Manuscript Submitted for Publication

Jones, R. (2019). Walt Whitman and the American Dream [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Department of English, University of Mississippi.

Personal Communication

Any communication that cannot be directly retrieved by a reader is considered “personal communication.” Emails, phone conversations, text messages, and social media messages are all examples of personal communication. You do not include personal communication in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase "personal communication," and the date of the communication in your main text only.

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2019).

If you reference personal communication in a footnote, as is common practice in certain fields and publications, you can document it in the same way.

1. P. Smith (personal communication, November 3, 2019) also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style.

Although you do not need to cite personal communication, do try to locate a source when possible. For example, if your friend told you about a research study he heard on a podcast, and you want to include that information in your essay, it is best to cite the original podcast, rather than the communication with your friend.