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Reference List: Audiovisual Media

Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. There is no equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style (i.e., this page was written from scratch), but the old resource for electronic sources, which covers similar ground, can be found here.

The term "audiovisual media" refers to media that contain both audio components, visual components, or a combination of both. In general, the citation style for audiovisual media varies depending on whether the piece stands alone or is part of a larger work. The following examples provide sample references for some of the most common audiovisual sources.

Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited audiovisual sources. For a complete list of how to cite audiovisual sources, please refer to the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Film or Video

Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Film]. Production company.

Loyd, P. (Director). (2008). Mamma mia! [Film]. Universal Pictures. 

Film or Video in Another Language 

Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture in original language [Translated title] [Film]. Production company.

Del Toro, G. (Director). (2006). El laberinto del fauno [Pan’s labyrinth] [Film]. Warner Bros. Pictures.

TV Series

Executive Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer). (Date range of release). Title of series [TV series]. Production company(s).

Sherman-Palladino, A., Palladino, D. (Executive Producers). (2017-present). The marvelous Mrs. Maisel [TV series]. Dorothy Parker Drank Here Productions; Picrow, Amazon Studios.

TV Series Episode

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Original air date). Title of episode (Season number, Episode number) [Tv series episode]. In P. Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Series title. Production company(s). 

Korsh, A. (Writer & Director). (2019, September 25). One last con (Season 9, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In D. Liman & D. Bartis (Executive Producers), Suits. Untitled Korsh Company; Universal Content Productions; Open 4 Business Productions. 

YouTube Video

Person or group who uploaded video. (Date of publication). Title of video [Video]. Website host. URL 

Tasty. (2018, March 7). 7 recipes you can make in 5 minutes [Video]. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9_5wHw6l11o

Music Album

Recording artist. (Year of release). Title of album [Album]. Record label.

The National. (2019). I am easy to find [Album]. 4AD.

Note: if you are referencing a re-recorded version of a classical work, list that album title in brackets following the name of the album.

Single Song or Track

Recording artist. (Year of release). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album [Album]. Record label. 

Dacus, L. (2018). Night shift [Song]. On Historian [Album]. Matador Records.

Note: if the song is a piece of classical music, you can list the composer instead of the recording artist.

Note: if the song does not have an associated album, simply omit the section with the album.

Podcast

Executive Producer, E. P. (Executive Producer). (Range of publication). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Production company. URL

Bae, P. (Executive Producer). (2017-present). The big loop [Audio podcast]. QRX. https://www.thebiglooppodcast.com/

Note: in place of the executive producer, you can also list the host of the podcast.

Note: if you did not access the podcast via an online source (e.g., if, you used a podcast app), omit the URL.

Single Podcast Episode

Executive Producer, E. P. (Executive Producer). (Date of publication). Title of podcast episode (Episode number) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of podcast. Production company. URL

Koenig, S. (Host). (2014, October 3). The alibi (No. 1) [Audio podcast episode]. In Serial. WBEZ Chicago. https://serialpodcast.org/

Note: in place of the executive producer, you can also list the host of the podcast.

Note: if you did not access the podcast via an online source (e.g., if you used a podcast app), omit the URL.

Artwork in a Museum or on a Museum Website

Artist, A. (Year of release). Title of artwork [medium]. Name of museum, City, State, Country. URL of museum

Hopper, E. (1942). Nighthawks [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States. https://www.artic.edu/artworks/111628/nighthawks

Note: if the artwork is available via a museum website, cite that website at the end of the citation. If there is no associated website, simply omit the URL.

Note: if the artwork does not have a title, briefly describe the work and put that description in square brackets.

Photograph (not associated with a museum)

Photographer, P. (Year of publication). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Source. URL

Ryan, S. (2019). [Sea smoke on Lake Michigan] [Photograph] New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/world/year-in-pictures.html

Note: if the photograph does not have a title, describe the photograph and put that description in square brackets.