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Interviews and Personal Communication


This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

In citations for interviews and personal communications, the name of the person interviewed or the person from whom the communication is received should be listed first. This is followed by the name of the interviewer or recipient, if given, and supplemented by details regarding the place and date of the interview/communication. Unpublished interviews and personal communications (such as face-to-face or telephone conversations, letters, emails, or text messages) are best cited in-text or in notes rather than in the bibliography. Published interviews should be cited like periodical articles or book chapters.

Unpublished Interviews


1. Alex Smith (retired plumber) in discussion with the author, January 2017.
2. Harvey Kail, interview by Laurie A. Pinkert, March 15, 2009, interview 45B, transcript.

Published or Broadcast Interviews


1. Carrie Rodriguez, interview by Cuz Frost, Acoustic Café, 88.3 WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.


Rodriguez, Carrie. Acoustic Café. By Cuz Frost. 88.3WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.

Personal Communications

Personal communications are usually fully integrated within the text or contained within a note. They rarely appear as bibliographic entries. Email addresses or the like belonging to an individual are generally omitted, and should only be cited with permission from the owner.


1. Patricia Burns, email message to author, December 15, 2017.