Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
Purdue University College of Liberal Arts
OWL logo

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

Audiovisual Recordings and Other Multimedia


This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

This resource explains how to cite film, television, and other audiovisual materials. Citations for such recorded media usually include some or all of the following information: name of the person primarily responsible for the content of the recording (composer, writer, performer, etc.), a title in quotation marks or italics, recording company or publisher’s name, identifying number, an indication of medium (DVD, videocassette, etc.), and a copyright and/or production or performance date. Entries for recorded material found online should also include a DOI or URL.

Note that the examples below are in the Notes and Bibliography (NB) format.

General Model for Citing Film, Television, and Other Recorded Mediums in Chicago Style

The order of the elements listed—and whether or not they will be included—depends not only on the nature of the source, but also whether a part or the whole source is cited, and whether a particular contributor is the focus of the citation.

Footnote or Endnote (N):

Entire Work:

  1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Work, directed/performed by Firstname Lastname (Original release year; City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year), Medium.


  1. Title of Work, episode number, “Episode Title,” directed/written/performed by Firstname Lastname, aired Month day, year, on Network Name, URL. 

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Work. Directed/Performed by Firstname Lastname. Original Release Year; City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. Medium.
Lastname, Firstname, dir. Title of Work. Season number, episode number, “Episode Title.” Aired Month day, year, on Network Name. URL.



   1. Joe Versus the Volcano, directed by John Patrick Shanley (1990; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002), DVD.


Shanley, John Patrick, dir. Joe Versus the Volcano. 1990; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002. DVD.

Musical Recordings  

General audiovisual guidelines apply to music recordings. If no date can be located, CMOS recommends consulting a library catalog or another source. Usually, musical citations without a date are unacceptable, but if they must be used, “n.d.” (for no date) can be substituted. Note that some musical recordings have writers who are not the primary performer(s) on the song, and that this affects the citation.


1. Name of group or composer or performer, Title, contributing personnel, Recording date, Recording Company or Publisher, Track Number on Name of Album, Year of Release, Medium.
1.  Bob Dylan, “Workingman’s Blues #2,” recorded February 2006, track 3 on Modern Times, Columbia, compact disc.
2. Ray Charles, vocalist, “Georgia on My Mind,” by Hoagy Carmichael and Stuart Gorrell, recorded March 1960, track 2 onThe Genius Hits the Road, ABC-Paramount, Vinyl LP. 


Name of group or composer or performer. Title. Contributing personnel. Recording date. Recording Company or Publisher, Medium.
Dylan, Bob. “Workingman’s Blues #2.” Recorded February 2006. Track 3 on Modern Times. Columbia. Compact disc.
Charles, Ray. “Georgia on My Mind.” By Hoagy Carmichael and Stuart Gorrell. Recorded March 1960. Track 2 on The Genius Hits the Road. ABC-Paramount. Vinyl LP.