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Electronic Sources


These resources provide guidance on how to cite sources using American Medical Association (AMA) Style, 10th Ed., including examples for print and electronic sources.

A Note on DOIs

DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) are relatively new additions to researchers' toolkits that can make the task of citation a little easier. Like an ordinary URL, a DOI is a string of characters used to identify a particular resource hosted on the internet. Unlike a URL, however, a DOI remains stable for the life of the resource even if its location or content changes. Thus, when a DOI is available, the AMA recommends using it in place of a URL.

To use a DOI, omit the URL, access date, and publication date. In place of this information, add the DOI (preceded by a "doi:" label). The rest of the citation should remain the same.

Author(s). Title. Journal Name. Year;vol(issue no.):inclusive pages. doi:10.0000000/000000000000

Online Journals

The basic format when referencing an article in an online journal is as follows:

Author(s). Title. Journal Name [using National Library of Medicine abbreviations as mentioned above]. Year;vol(issue no.):inclusive pages. URL [provide the URL in this field; no need to use “URL:” preceding it]. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date].

1. Drake AJ, Smith A, Betts PR, et al. Type 2 diabetes in obese white children. Arch Dis Child. 2002;86(3), 207-208. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11861246. Accessed April 5, 2015.

Books and Books on CD-ROM

The basic format when referencing to an internet-based book is as follows. Note: If the reference is to the entire book, the information about chapter title and inclusive pages is not included. 

Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book Title. [Edition number, if it is the second edition or above; mention of first edition is not necessary] ed. City, State (or country) of publisher: Publisher’s name; copyright:inclusive pages. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to the time of publication]. Accessed [date].

1. Koplan JP, Liverman CT, Kraak VA.  Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Washington, DC: National Academies Institute of Medicine; 2005. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11015/preventing-childhood-obesity-health-in-the-balance. Accessed April 7, 2015.


When citing data from a website, include the following elements, if available, in the order shown below:

Author(s), if given (often, no authors are given). Title of the specific item cited (if none is given, use the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of the website. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication]. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date].

1. Living With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes.org. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/recently-diagnosed/living-with-type-1-diabetes.html. Published February 9, 2015. Accessed April 7, 2015.
2. Why Immunize? cdc.gov. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/why.htm. Updated September 23, 2014. Accessed April 7, 2015.
3. Yale University. ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/relesases/2015/01/1501733950. Published January 7, 2015. Accessed April 5, 2015.