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Reading and Action Stage

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Reading Stage

The following graphics illustrate the reading stage where your communication might be read by a number of people including your primary audience, secondary audience, and shadow readers:

Action stage consists of your organization and the client organization, with additional shadow readers within the client's organization (with specific named examples).

Reading Stage

Reading stage, complex image.  Provides an example of an organizational hierarchy where the presdient and directors are at the top, and the document moves through at least some of these readers during its process.

Reading Stage (Detailed)

Action Stage

The following graphic illustrates the action stage where your communication's information might lead to decisions, which in turn, can lead to action that influences the lives of your stakeholders. In a user-centered writing process, decision makers and stakeholders will provide feedback to help you further revise your communication:

During the reading stage, your organization is connected to the client (a complex audience).  Stakeholders are connected to the client through feedback, as are decisions and actions.

Action Stage


Anderson, Paul V. Technical Communication: A Reader-Centered Approach. 6th ed. Boston: Thomson-Wadsworth, 2007.

Johnson-Sheehan, Richard. Technical Communication Today. New York: Pearson-Longman, 2005.