Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
Purdue University College of Liberal Arts
OWL logo

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.



Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.


World Englishes: Suggested Readings

This page provides a list of resources (journal articles, book chapters, and books) on the different varieties of English and historical development of world Englishes. These include⁠—but are not limited to⁠—the sources referenced on the other pages in this section.

Suggested Readings

Aguilar-Sanchez, Jorge (2005). English in Costa Rica. World Englishes, 24(2), 161-172.

Bauer, Laurie (2002). An introduction to international varieties of English. Edinburgh: Edhinburgh University Press.

Belmihoub, Kamal (2018). English in a multilingual Algeria. World Englishes, 37(2), 207-227.

Berns, Margie (2006). World Englishes and communicative competence. In B. B. Kachru, Y. Kachru, Y., & C. L. Nelson (Eds.), The handbook of World Englishes(pp. 718-729). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Berns, M. (2009). World Englishes and communicative competence. In B. B. Kachru, Y. Kachru, & C. L. Nelson (Eds.), Handbook of World Englishes (pp. 718-729). West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Berns, Margie et al. (1998). (Re)experiencing hegemony: The linguistic imperialism of Robert Phillipson. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(2), 271-82. 

Berns, Margie (1995). English in the European Union. English Today, 11(3), 3-11.

Berns, Margie (1990). Contexts of Competence: Social and Cultural Considerations in Communicative Language Teaching.New York: Plenum Press.

Bolton, Kingsley (2006). World Englishes Today. In B. B. Kachru, Y. Kachru, & C. L. Nelson (ed.), The Handbook of World Englishes (pp. 240-269). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Canagarajah, A. Suresh (2006). The place of World Englishes in composition: Pluralization continued. College Composition and Communication 57(4), 586-619.

Chambers, J. K. (Jack) (1995). Sociolinguistic Theory.Oxford: Blackwell.

Cohen, Roger (2005). English in Mongolia. World Englishes, 24(2), 203-216.

Davies, Diane (2005). Varieties of Modern English: An introduction.Malaysia: Pearson Education Limited.

Dogncay-Aktuna, Seran & Kiziltepe, Zeynep (2005). English in Turkey. World Englishes, 24(2), 253-265.

Filppula, Markku, Klemola, Juhani & Sharma, Devyani (2017). The Oxford Handbook of World Englishes. New York: Oxford University Press.

Friedrich, Patricia (2016). English for Diplomatic Purposes (ed.).Bristol, Buffalo: Multilingual Matters.

Friedrich, Patricia, Diniz, de Figueiredo, & Eduardo H. (2016). The Sociolinguistics of Digital Englishes.New York: Routledge.

Ganesh, Ravinder & Sailaja, Pingali (2017). South Asia. In M. Filppula, J. Klemola, & D. Sharma (Eds.), The handbook of World Englishes (pp. 425-447). New York: Oxford University Press.

Graddol, David (1997). The future of English?  London: The British Council.

Jarvis Kwadzo Bokor, M. (2011). Connecting with the “other” in technical communication: World Englishes and ethos transformation of US native English-speaking students. Technical Communication Quarterly, 20(2), 208-237.

Jenkins, Jennifer (2003). World Englishes: A resource book for students.New York, NY: Routledge.

Jin, Ha (2008). The writer as migrant.Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M. (2006). South African Englishes. In B. B. Kachru, Y. Kachru, Yamuna, & C. L. Nelson (Eds.) The handbook of World Englishes (pp.158-171). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kachru, B. (1986). The alchemy of English: The spread, functions and Models of non-native Englishes. Oxford: Pergamon Press, reprinted 1990, Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Kachru, Braj B., Kachru, Yamuna, & Nelson, Cecil L. (2006). The handbook of World Englishes.Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kachru, Braj B. (1992). The other tongue: English across cultures.University of Illinois Press.

Kachru, Braj B. (1985) Standards, Codification and Sociolinguistic Realism: the English Language in the Outer Circle.  In R. Quirk & H. G. Widdowson (Eds.), English in the World: Teaching and learning the languages and literatures (pp.1-30). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kachru, Yamuna (2011). World Englishes: Contexts and relevance for language education.  In E. Hinkel (2nded.), Handbook of research in second language learning and teaching(pp. 155-171). New York, NY: Routledge.

Kachru, Braj B. (1983). Indianization of English: the English language in India.Oxford University Press.

Kachru, Braj B. (2005). Asian Englishes beyond the canon.Hong Kong University Press.

Kachru, Braj B. (1981) The pragmatics of non-native varieties of English. In L. Smith (Eds.) English for cross-cultural communication(pp. 15-34). New York: St. Matin's Press.

Kachru, Yamuna (1985). Discourse analysis, non-native Englishes and second language acquisition research. World Englishes 4(2), 223-232.

Kachru, Yamuna (1995). Contrastive rhetoric in World Englishes. English Today 11(1), 21-31.

Kachru, Yamuna and Nelson, Cecil L. (2005). World Englishes in Asian Contexts.Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Kachru, Yamuna (2006). World Englishes and language education. In S. Nero (Eds.), Englishes, creoles, and education (pp.19-38). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kachru, Yamuna and Smith, Larry E. (2008). Cultures, Contexts, and World Englishes.New York: Routledge.

Kachru, Yamuna (2001). World Englishes and rhetoric across cultures. Asian Englishes, 4(2), 54-71.

Kasztalska, Aleksandra (2014). English in contemporary Poland. World Englishes, 33(2), 242-262.

Kirkpatrick, Andy. (2007). World Englishes: Implications for international communication and English language teaching.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Lee, Melissa E. (2014). Shifting to the World Englishes paradigm by way of the translingual approach: Codemeshing as a necessary means of transforming composition pedagogy. TESOL Journal 5(2), 312-329.

Lok, Ian Mai Chi (2012). World Englishes and postcolonialism: Reading Kachru and said. World Englishes, 31(4), 419-433.

Matsuda, Aya (2013). World Englishes and language pedagogy.  In C. Chapelle (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics(pp. 1-7). New York: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Matsuda, Aya and Matsuda, Paul Kei (2010). World Englishes and the Teaching of Writing. TESOL Quarterly, 44(2), 369-374.

Modiano, Marko (2017). English in a Post-Brexit European Union. World Englishes, 36(3) 313-327.

Matsuda, Aya and Friedrich, Patricia (2011). English as an international language: A curriculum blueprint. World Englishes 30(3), 332-344.

Matsuda, Paul Kei (2003). Proud to be a Nonnative English Speaker.TESOL Matters, 13(4), 15.

Melchers, Gunnel & Shaw, Phillip (2003). World Englishes. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mesthrie, Rajend and Bhatt, Rakesh M. (2008). World Englishes: The study of the new linguistic varieties.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Michieka, Martha (2009). Expanding circles within the outer circle: The rural Kisii in Kenya. World Englishes, 28(3), 352–364,

Modiano, Marko. (2009). Inclusive/exclusive? English as a lingua franca in the European Union. World Englishes, 28(2), 208-223.

Nelson Cecil L. (2008). Intelligibility since 1969. World Englishes, 27, 297-308.

Nelson, Cecil L. (1995). Intelligibility and World Englishes in the classroom. World Englishes 14(2), 273–279.

Park, Joseph Sung-Yul & Wee, Lionel (2011). A practice-based critique of English as a Lingua Franca. World Englishes, 30(3), 360-374.

Pakir, Anne. (2000). English as a lingua franca: Analyzing research frameworks in international English, World Englishes, and ELF. World Englishes, 28(2), 224-235.

Park, Gloria and Lee, Sarah Henderson (2014). Editorial. Critical Perspectives on World Englishes: An Inquiry into Our Disciplinary Spaces as Teachers-Scholars. TESOL Journal, 5(3),395-411.

Porter, Curt (2014). Beyond a politics of the plural in World Englishes. TESOL Journal, 5(3), 532-540.

Proshina, Zoya G. and Eddy, Anna A. (Eds.) 2016). Russian English: History, Functions, and Features.London: Oxford University Press.

Romaine, Suzanne (2001). Contact with other languages. In J. Algeo (6thed.) The Cambridge History of the English Language(pp.154-183). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Seidlhofer, Barbara (2001). Closing a conceptual gap: The case for a description of English as a Lingua Franca. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 133-58.

Saraceni, Mario (2015). World Englishes: A critical analysis.London: Bloomsbury.

Seidlhofer, Barbara. (2009). Common ground and different realities: World Englishes and English as a lingua franca. World Englishes, 28(2), 236-245

Seidlhofer, Barbara. (2011). Understanding English as a Lingua Franca.Oxford University Press.

Seidlhofer, Barbara & Margie Berns (2009). Symposium: Englishes in world contexts. World Englishes, 28(2), 190-191.

Smith, Larry E. and Nelson, Cecil E. (1985). International intelligibility of English: Directions and resources. World Englishes 4(3), 333-342.

Smith, Larry E. (1992). Spread of English and issues of intelligibility. In Braj B. Kachru (ed.), The other tongue: English across cultures(pp.75-90). Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.

Smith, Larry E. and Rafiqzad, Khalilulla (1979). English for cross-cultural communication: The question of intelligibility. TESOL Quarterly 13(3), 371-80.

Smith, Larry E. and Bisazza, John (1982). The comprehensibility of three varieties of English for college students in seven countries. Language Learning 32(2), 259-70.

Smith, Larry E. and Christopher, Elizabeth (2001). “Why can’t they understand me when I speak English so clearly?” In Edwin Thumboo (Ed.),The Three Circles of English: Language Specialists Talk about the English Language(pp. 91-100). Singapore: Unipress.

Thumboo, Edwin (2009). Literary creativity in World Englishes. In B. Kachru, Y. Kachru, & C. Nelson (ed.), The Handbook of World Englishes (pp. 240-269). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Trudgill, Peter (1986). Dialects in contact.Oxford: Blackwell.

Trudgill, Peter (2004). New-dialect formation: The inevitability of colonial Englishes. New York: Oxford University Press.

Trudgill, Peter & Hannah, Jean (2008)). International English: A guide to the varieties of standard English. Malta: Hodder Education.

Ustinova, Irina P. (2005). English in Russia. World Englishes, 24(2), 239-251.

Valez-Rendon, Gloria (2003). English in Colombia: A sociolinguistic profile. World Englishes, 22(2), 185-198.

Van Rooy, Bertus (2017). English in South Africa. In M. Filppula, J. Klemola, & D. Sharma (Eds.) The Oxford handbook of World Englishes(pp. 508-530). New York: Oxford University Press.

Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English(three volumes). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Young, Vershawn Ashanti and Martinez, Aja Y. (2011). Code-meshing as World English: Pedagogy, policy, performance.Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Zhang, Hang (2002). Bilingual creativity in Chinese English: Ha Jin's 'In the pond'. World Englishes. Special issue. English in China: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 21(2), 305-316.